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Definition and Characteristics of Structure Explanatory Text, Example Text Etc

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Definition and characteristics of explanatory text actually easy to identify. Its characteristic is that the text explains something in detail and also discusses it from various points of view. Sometimes, explaining an event or news is also included in this type.

Explanation can literally be interpreted as an explanation. This means that it is a text that can explain various natural, cultural, incidents, or anything that writes it down in detail. In writing this text has been taught since I was still in school.

Definition and Characteristics of Explanatory Text According to Experts

There are several meanings according to experts about the meaning of this explanatory text. Maybe you can listen to it first to get a better understanding of this text. The meaning of explanatory text is as follows.

According to Restuti in her book published in 2013. Explanatory text is a text that explains or explains related to the existence of a process and the occurrence of an event. These events are not only limited to natural phenomena but also the social picture of society.

Meanwhile, according to Barwick, explanatory text is a text that explains and also describes the processes or reasons for the occurrence of the world. And also the place how humans live. Barwick put more emphasis on exact and natural phenomena.

According to Mahsun, explanatory text has three inseparable main structural parts. The structure is the opening, explanation or content, and also the closing as an interpretation or conclusion from everything.

According to Kosasih, explanatory text is a text that has genre related to general text. Or it can also be interpreted as a text that describes a process or event related to the origin, process, development of natural, social, and cultural phenomena.

Understanding and Characteristics of Explanatory Text in General

Understanding and Characteristics of Explanatory Text in General

After knowing the opinions of experts who issued theories about explanatory texts, you can generally conclude that explanatory texts are texts that contain the process of an event occurring.

Describes how natural, social, and cultural events can occur in human life. In fact, explanatory text does not only describe exact or natural events. However, it is also a social phenomenon.

For example, this text can explain the process of flash floods, the story of which can be started from the formation of rain as a result of the evaporation of various waters on land and sea. In explaining it, of course, use language that is easy to understand.

In addition, explanations about social phenomena can also be made into explanatory texts. For example, why do all Indonesians and the world now like Korean popular culture (K-Pop). Then it can be explained the various backgrounds and the beginnings of the emergence of this culture.

Characteristics of Explanatory Text

Characteristics of Explanatory Text

There are several main features of explanatory text which can be explained according to the explanation that has been presented before. For example, information must be based on facts, scientific phenomena, and so on. The following features of explanatory text are:

1. Based on Facts (Factual)

The information obtained must be based on facts or often referred to as factual terms. For this reason, all presentations of news and facts must go through research first. For example, it must include clear sources, it can be studied through several theories.

If using the exact approach then meaning and characteristics of explanatory text, such exposure must be scientifically proven. Meanwhile, when using a social approach, the theory must be explainable and also in accordance with historical facts or phenomena that occur.

2. Discussion is Scientific

Explanatory text discusses something scientific. You may issue a hypothesis, but it must be in accordance with existing scientific principles. So that all these theories can be scientifically proven and tested.

You can discuss various things, but use standard and informative language. Everyone who reads it must get as much information as possible about a problem being discussed.

3. Is Informative

This paper is only to provide information as clear as possible to the public. Explain the data and facts that actually happened in the field according to the theory or evidence you have. Don’t write solicitation sentences, persuasion, or anything to invite the general public.

Moreover, to believe in a particular phenomenon or believe in certain social issues. Let the readers digest for themselves and understand the intent of the writing made. For this reason, making an explanatory text must also be able to provide its own benefits.

4. Focus on general matters

In general meaning and characteristics of explanatory text used to explain various natural phenomena that occur. For example earthquakes, floods, rains, tsunamis, and so on. In compiling it also contains things such as the causes of the phenomenon, the root of the problem.

You can also add about casualties, damaged houses, refugee data, and so on. Present data and facts that are general in nature, not thoroughly discussing a problem or event. For this reason, explanatory texts are meant to provide an overview only.

Structure in an Explanatory Text

In discussing the structure, of course, it will provide more descriptions to make examples or produce writing in the form of explanatory text. For that some structures that must exist and need to be considered in the manufacture are as follows.

1. Identifying the Phenomena that Occur

The first thing to do is to identify or analyze a phenomenon that occurs. In writing this identification can also be interpreted as a general description of the incident which will be discussed next.

This section is located at the beginning of the text, can be made in several paragraphs. Describe in detail about the phenomenon that occurred. If taken as an example of an earthquake event. Then you can identify where the earthquake occurred, at what scale magnitude.

Next is the identification of temporary casualties, damaged houses, and other important information. If the condition is severe, it can also be reported about the needs of refugees, tents, and so on.

This sequence of events is important to be able to sequence the events described in an explanatory text in a coherent manner and easily understood by those who read. You can explain the cause and effect of the event.

So that you can see the common thread and also the series of phenomena that occur. This section is the most important part or what is often called the content. So therefore meaning and characteristics of explanatory text should be written clearly and structured.

Again taking the example of the earthquake case, you can sort the events from the first day of the earthquake, then make various explanations about the events in the following days up to the current situation.

3. Interpretation

Interpretation here means drawing conclusions from all the events that have been described. This explanation is placed at the end so that the reader can understand what was explained in detail earlier.

Use language that is easy to understand, summarize the explanation in 2-3 paragraphs so that the reader understands clearly the information conveyed. You can provide statements and responses about the events discussed.

Language Rules

In writing primarily non-literary works, one must understand the linguistic rules used in writing meaning and characteristics of explanatory text. You cannot make an explanatory text using arbitrary language rules.

Some of the rules that need to be considered are as follows.

1. Using Passive Sentences

In an explanatory text using a lot of passive sentences the aim is to be able to get a linguistic point of view that has minimal subject of greeting. A sign of using passive sentences, for example, is using the prefix di or ter.

2. Use of Causal and Temporal Conjunctions

A causal conjunction is a conjunction that expresses a causal relationship. While temporal conjunctions express the time sequence of events. Much of this is explained in the content section which contains events in a coherent manner and also explains cause and effect.

3. Using Scientific Language

In making explanatory texts, you should not use greeting words or slang which are commonly used for articles or informal conversations. Use scientific languages ‚Äč‚Äčthat can explain the occurrence of an event in a particular field of knowledge.

4. Use Material and Rational Verbs

The point is to use verbs that can express actions that involve the five senses so that they are called material. For example, from direct observation using the senses of the eye. From hearing direct observation can use the ear.

5. It is informative in nature

As previously explained, this article is informative in nature without any solicitation or persuasion or other purposes. Definition and characteristics of explanatory text This only informs the readers about the happenings or events that are taking place

Example of explanatory text

Example of explanatory text

Explanatory text is not only used to explain the phenomenon that is happening. However, it can also discuss various other events that occurred several years ago, or in the past. It is important to be able to explain in detail about the phenomenon being discussed.

To make it easier to understand, an example of an explanatory text will be made below.


Indonesia’s geographical area, which is located in the world’s ring of fire, makes Indonesia’s subsoil very unstable. The presence of volcanoes often causes volcanic earthquakes.

Meanwhile, the movement of the plates under the earth’s crust also causes tectonic earthquakes. Both can have a serious impact on human life causing loss of life, and also damaging people’s homes.

Causes of Earthquakes

Actually there is no technology that can predict the occurrence of earthquakes in the future. However, with the position and location of Indonesia, the potential for earthquakes can be analyzed and it is very large to occur in Indonesia.

The cause of tectonic earthquakes is a shift in the plates in the bowels of the earth that collide with each other and cause the ground to vibrate. Conditions inside the bowels of the earth are actually very unstable because it consists of a liquid layer in the form of magma and hard elements in the form of the earth’s crust.

Both allow for collisions and shifts. If the collision is hard enough, it can cause an earthquake. In addition, earthquakes at sea can also cause faults and cause tsunamis or floods that rise to land.

Earthquakes cannot be prevented, but people can mitigate disasters by understanding what to do when an earthquake occurs. Besides that, it also applies earthquake-resistant building or house technology.

Those are some meaning and characteristics of explanatory text, also discusses the characteristics, linguistic rules used, as well as examples. Of course, you can already understand and try to make other explanatory texts according to the specified theme.

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Originally posted 2022-12-15 08:18:01.

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