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Indonesia is one of the countries with a tropical climate, so it is not surprising that there are so many flora and fauna scattered in several regions of our country. Distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia play a very important role in its growth.
With more and more types of flora and fauna spread across Indonesia, this can make Indonesia have more and more animals and plants in every region. In fact, Indonesia was once said to be one of the countries with the highest diversity of flora and fauna.
Until now, there are 25 thousand species of flora in Indonesia and this number will continue to grow. If this figure represents the number of flora in Indonesia, the number of fauna in Indonesia alone reaches more than 200 thousand different species. So, how is it spread?
List Distribution of Flora and Fauna in Indonesia
The ecosystem of each type of flora and fauna in Indonesia will play a very important role in the process of their reproduction. There are several types of flora and fauna that are suitable for living in a tropical climate like Indonesia, and some are not suitable.
Meanwhile, question about distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia it has often been asked by some people, especially among students. To provide answers to these questions, here we will provide a complete explanation:
1. The Distribution of Existing Flora in Indonesia
The types of flora that are spread in Indonesia can be distinguished according to the distribution process itself. Basically, there are 4 main categories of distribution of flora in Indonesia. For more details, see the following list of distribution of flora in Indonesia:
a. Flora of Sumatra and Borneo
For the category of distribution of flora in Indonesia, it has an asiatic pattern and is spread throughout the western region. The types of flora included in this category can be found easily in several areas on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan.
The flora that live on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan generally require an environment that is often drenched in rain. Therefore, not a few of these types of flora live in tropical rain forest areas.
Generally, tropical rain forests will be surrounded by various types of tall and large trees. In fact, most of the trees in the forest will have multiple layers in them. Meanwhile for several types of flora that are spread in this area are:
- The opportunity
- meranti wood
- Various types of orchids
- Tree mangrove which usually grows on the beach
b. Flora of Java and Bali
Continuing the discussion about distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia along with their place of origin, we will also explain the types of flora that are spread across the islands of Java and Bali. The two islands in Indonesia have a variety of different climates.
Rainfall in Java and Bali is lower than in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Two types of climate exist in this region, namely tropical monsoon climate and tropical rain forest climate. Apart from that, Bali also has another type of climate called the tropical savanna climate.
There are several types of flora spread across these two islands, and some of them are:
- Pine trees
c. Flora of Central Indonesia (Wallacea Islands)
Other types of flora in Indonesia are scattered in several central areas, namely the Wallacea Islands. Some of Indonesia’s territories included in these islands are Sulawesi Island, Timor Island, the Nusa Tenggara Islands, and the Maluku Islands.
Unlike some of the previous areas, the climate in the Wallacea Islands is classified as drier. In fact, the humidity level in this area is also quite low. Therefore, not all types of flora in Indonesia can grow in this area.
The types of flora that are scattered in the Wallacea Islands region can be distinguished according to their regional origin, namely:
- Sulawesi: Mountain forest flora
- Nusa Tenggara: Tropical savanna and steppe flora
- Maluku: Mixed forest flora such as cloves, cinnamon, ebony, and so on
d. Flora Papua
Not the least of some people are curious about how distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia. The types of flora that are spread across the Papua region will have an Australian style. This type of Australian-style flora also lives in tropical rain forest areas.
There are several tropical rain forests that can be found on the island of New Guinea, because this island belongs to the eastern part of Indonesia. In fact, some of them are said to be similar to tropical rain forests that are spread over a number of areas in western Australia.
Meanwhile, for the types of flora included in the category of the eastern area are as follows:
- Mountain flora
- Beach flora
- Pine trees
2. The Distribution of Existing Fauna in Indonesia
Distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia is things that can increase the diversity of animals and plants. Therefore, after discussing the process of distribution of flora in Indonesia, we will also discuss the process of distribution of fauna in Indonesia.
Just like the previous distribution of flora in Indonesia, the process of distribution of fauna in our country can also be differentiated according to the region of origin. The following is a complete explanation of the distribution of fauna in Indonesia:
a. Asiatic Fauna (Western Region)
The types of fauna that exist in the western region of Indonesia are also often referred to as Asiatic fauna. Usually, these types of fauna will have an effect on Asian patterns. Animals that are often found in the islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Bali include Asiatic fauna.
Because, these types of fauna usually live in an area that tends to be cold. Here are some types of fauna that are spread in the western region of Indonesia:
- Sumatran tiger
- Javanese Eagle
- Javanese rhino
- They are
b. Transitional Fauna (Central Area)
Type distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia this one is on the island of Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and other islands in the vicinity. The atmosphere in this area is not as cool as the previous western region.
Some examples of fauna that are scattered in the central region of Indonesia are below:
- Maleo bird
- To send
- Seba monkey
c. Fauna Australis (East Region)
The Australis fauna will spread across several areas on the island of Papua. This is because Papua Island is the easternmost region of Indonesia. The reason why this type of fauna is said to be the Australian fauna is because they have some similarities with Australian animals.
Not only that, the Australian fauna which is spread in eastern Indonesia also has skin that is more beautiful than the skin of other animals. While some examples are:
- Bird of Paradise
- to the case
- Move back
- King shrimp
- Different kinds of frogs
7 Factors Affecting the Distribution of Flora and Fauna in Indonesia
Every type of flora and fauna in Indonesia must be preserved by all parties, to avoid extinction in the future. In this case, there are several influencing things distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesiawhich among others are:
1. Living Beings
Factors in the distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia the first is a living being. Both humans, animals and plants around the flora and fauna will have a very big role in maintaining the balance of the environmental ecosystem.
There are still some people who are not aware that flora cannot live when there are no humans and fauna to support it in the surrounding environment. Likewise with the two other living things, namely humans and animals, they cannot live when there is no flora around them.
By looking at the division of the distribution of flora and fauna above, you will know that this distribution will be carried out by taking into account the climate in that environment. Basically, a climate that is always maintained stably can make flora and fauna more adaptable.
This is different when the climate in a particular environment or region is not in a stable condition. Of course this will make it difficult for all types of flora and fauna in Indonesia to survive.
3. Air Temperature
In addition to climate, air temperature is also one of the factors that affect the process of distribution of flora and fauna in our country. All types of flora and fauna in Indonesia will need normal air temperatures, so they can adapt and breathe more easily.
Meanwhile, when one type of flora or fauna lives in an area with extreme temperatures, they will have difficulty surviving. Therefore, humans must always hold back their greed to take the habitat of these flora and fauna.
4. Type of Land
Either one influencing factors distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia is soil types in the ecosystem area. Every region in Indonesia will have a different soil structure, so it is not surprising that this is also one of the factors that must be considered.
The better the soil structure in an area, this can have a better influence on the life of the flora and fauna. Meanwhile, the ideal soil composition is composed of organic mineral materials, inorganic minerals, and air.
In order to preserve all types of flora and fauna in Indonesia, people must pay attention to the geographical conditions where they live. The reason is, this topographical condition will become the original habitat of all kinds of flora and fauna that live in the area.
6. Rainwater and Sunlight
There are several types of flora and fauna that are more suitable for living in areas that are exposed to a lot of sunlight. However, there are also several types of flora and fauna in Indonesia that are more suitable for living in an area that often rains.
Usually, the types of flora and fauna that are suitable for the rainy season will live in the western region of Indonesia. Meanwhile, the types of flora and fauna suitable for summer will be more widely spread in eastern Indonesia.
Wind is one of the natural materials that is needed for the process of spreading flora and fauna in Indonesia. For example, when the wind helps spread the seeds of plants to grow more evenly. That way, these seeds can also benefit many animals.
Related discussion distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia it’s always interesting to talk about. For that, understand every point regarding the distribution of flora and fauna in this article.
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