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Functional Group Alkyl Alkanoate Found In

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Functional Group Alkyl Alkanoate Found In – Structure, nomenclature, properties and uses of analytical carbon compounds (halogenated alkanes, alkanols, alkoxyalkanes, alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic acids, and alkanoates)

Presentation on the topic: “Structural analysis, nomenclature, properties and uses of carbon compounds (haloalkanes, alkanols, alkoxyalkanes, alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic and alkanoic acids)”— Presentation transcript: Structure, nomenclature, properties of carbon compounds. and use

Functional Group Alkyl Alkanoate Found In

1 “Structure, nomenclature, properties and uses of analytical carbon compounds (halogenated alkanes, alkanols, alkoxyalkanes, alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic acids, and alkanoates)”

Alkane Derivative Compounds (joysya)

3 Carbon compounds are components of organic compounds whose largest components consist of organic matter elements, such as C;H;Oh;No;; Q: Example: sucrose, protein, glucose. In this example, the main components of the compound are C atoms (carbon).

What can you conclude from looking at these two relationships? What is the difference between these two compounds? When viewed from these two compounds, these two compounds have the same number of C and H atoms, but have different properties.

– Oh. The -OH group is responsible for the difference in properties between ethane and ethanol. The -OH group is known as a functional group. Functional groups are atoms or groups of atoms that characterize a homologue. Each carbon compound with different functional groups has different properties.

8 Halogen Alkanes The structural formulas of alkanes are the same, except that one or more H atoms are replaced by halogen atoms (X=F, Cl, Br, I). General formula: CnH2n+1X A. Nomenclature 1. The IUPAC nomenclature is as follows: determine the parent chain, which is the longest carbon chain containing halogen atoms (X=F, Cl, Br, I). give number Numbering starts from one end of the chain so that the position of the halogen atom gets the lowest number. Alkyl groups other than the main chain and branched halogen atoms.

Write down an example of the reaction equation below! A. Ester reaction with hydrogen gas B. Hydrolysis

9 Example: Note: If more than one halogen atom is present, the numbers F, Cl, Br, and I take priority according to their reactivity.

It has a higher boiling point than the parent alkane, and the longer the carbon chain, the higher the boiling point. At room temperature, short chain haloalkanes are gaseous, while long chain haloalkanes are liquid to solid. Not soluble in water. Higher halogenated alkanes are volatile liquids, and the boiling points of isomers of halogenated alkanes vary in the order of primary, secondary, and tertiary. When treated with an aqueous base, the haloalkanes can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding alcohols.

Elimination reactions can occur to form alkenes. If it reacts with metal Na, it produces an alkane with twice the chain length of the original carbon atoms (Wurtz synthesis). C. Use of CH3Cl (chloromethane) as a refrigerant, for silicones and dyes. CH3Br (methyl bromide) is used as a fire extinguishing agent in aircraft CFCs (freon), i.e. refrigerants. Consequence: destruction of the ozone layer. C2H3Cl (vinyl chloride) is used as a monomer to make PVC (plastic) and tetrachloromethane (CCl4) is used as a fire extinguishing agent. Freon (CCl2F2) is generally used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners and as an aerosol filler.

13 Alkanols/Alcohols Alcohols are compounds derived from alkanes containing hydroxyl functional groups. The general formula of an alcohol takes into account the following structural formulas of carbon compounds.

Alkane Derivative Compounds With Different Functional Groups

14 Types of alcohols Alcohols are divided into three types according to the position of their functional groups, namely: 1) Primary alcohols, namely alcohols whose functional group (-OH) is attached to the primary carbon atom. 2) secondary alcohol, namely alcohol with a functional group (-OH) connected to a secondary C atom.

Identify the main chain, the longest carbon chain containing the -OH group and another carbon atom, as branches. The main chain is numbered starting from one end of the chain so that the position of the –OH group is given the least number. (Note that it’s not necessarily the first!!!) Naming order

21 Table 4.2 above shows that alkanols have relatively high boiling points. The higher the relative molecular weight of an alkanol, the higher its melting and boiling points. Therefore, the increase in melting and boiling points of alkanols is proportional to the increase in their relative molecular masses. Branched chain alkanols have lower boiling points than straight chain alkanols for alkanols with the same molecular formula. The solubility of alkanols in water decreases with increasing carbon chain length. The solubility of alkanols is related to the polar -OH group, whereas alkyl (R) is non-polar. Therefore, the larger the R group, the less polar it is so that the solubility in polar solvents (such as water) decreases, while the solubility in nonpolar solvents increases.

22 2. Chemical Properties The -OH group in alkanols is a relatively active group and participates in many alkanols in various reactions. React with sodium metal to produce alkoxides and hydrogen. An example of the reaction of ethanol with sodium metal (Fig. 4.2).

Solution: Hydrocarbon Derivatives

23 Oxidation reactions produce different reaction products depending on the type of alcohol. Alcohols are oxidized with an oxidizing medium such as a solution of K2Cr2O7 in an acidic medium, which is used to determine primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Rather. Primary alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes and can be further oxidized to carboxylic acids. b) Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones. c. Tertiary alcohols are not oxidized.

Esterification with carboxylic acids produces esters. Dehydration reaction of alcohols Alkenes and water are formed when alcohols are heated with strong acids.

25 C. Use in the pharmaceutical industry (drugs), as a solvent for organic compounds such as ethanol and butanol. In biology or industry, it is used as a disinfectant, like ethanol and methanol. As a fuel, such as alcohol (a mixture of methanol and ethanol). Ethylene glycol is used as a solvent, softener, raw material for making fibers and as antifreeze in car radiators. Glycerin is used as a sweetener for diabetes. Among other things, it is used in the production of nitroglycerin explosives, as a raw material for plastic production, as a tobacco moisturizer, and as a cosmetic ingredient.

26 Alkoxyalkanes/Ethers Ethers or alkoxyalkanes have the general formula R–O–R’. It is attached to two alkyl groups with -O- function.

Alkane Derivative Carbon Compounds

1. Nomenclature usually begins with the name of the alkyl group attached to the -O- group, followed by the word ether. 2. The nomenclature is based on IUPAC, where the ana suffix is ​​replaced with the oxy suffix in the original alkane.

Diethyl ether is a colorless, volatile liquid with a characteristic odor. Diethyl ether is insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar solvents. Ether is flammable with a bright flame because ether vapors form an explosive mixture with air. Ethers dissolve oils, fats, resins, alkaloids, bromine and iodine. 2. Chemical properties Oxidized with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid, aldehydes are formed.

Reacts with sulfuric acid to form alcohols and alkanesulfonic acids. Hydrolysis of ether with sulfuric acid gives alcohol. D. Uses Ether is used in the laboratory as a good solvent for covalent compounds and is slightly soluble in water. In the health sector, ether is widely used as an anesthetic or medicine. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used to increase the octane number of gasoline.

31 A. Nomenclature 1. The IUPAC name for an aldehyde as an alkane derivative comes from the name of the alkane, replacing the ending a with al. example:

Analyzing the Structure, Nomenclature, Properties and Uses of Carbon Compounds (Halo Alkanes, Alkanols, Alkoxy Alkanes, Alkanals, Alkanones, Alkanoic Acids and Alkyl Alkanoates)”

32 Branched aldehydes have the same nomenclature as alcohols, but there is no need to specify the position of the –CHO functional group, as it is always the first carbon atom. example:

Aldehydes with 1-2 carbon atoms (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) are gases that have an unpleasant odor at room temperature. Aldehydes with 3-12 carbon atoms are liquid at room temperature and have a pleasant odor. Aldehydes with more than 12 carbon atoms are solid at room temperature. Low aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) are soluble in water. Long chain aldehydes are insoluble in water.

35 2. Chemical Properties Oxidized and formed with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid to form carbonic acid. It oxidizes with Fehling’s solution, forming a brick red precipitate of copper oxide. Silver mirror obtained by oxidation of Tollen’s solution. Reduction with zinc and hydrochloric acid gives primary alcohols. Reacts with sodium bisulfite to produce aldehyde bisulfite, with ammonia to produce amaldehyde, and with cyanic acid to produce cyanoldola. Reacts with hydroxylamine to form aldoxime and water. :

36 C. Used in the production of formaldehyde. Formalin is used to preserve biological samples and also to preserve corpses. In the production of various types of thermosetting plastics (plastics that do not melt when heated) are used.

Assignment, Chapter 4

37 Alkanones/ketones The general formulas are similar to those of aldehydes, except that one of the H atoms attached to the carbonyl group is replaced by an alkyl group. The general formula for ketones is CnH2nO.

38 As can be seen from Table 4.7, the carbonyl group (–CO–) connects two equal or unequal alkyl groups (R), so that ketones have the formula:

39 A. Nomenclature 1. Trifles First, the alkyl bonded to the C carbonyl atom is mentioned, then the word ketone is mentioned. Alkyl groups are named alphabetically. example:

40 2. IUPAC defines the main chain, namely the longest chain of C atoms that has a carbonyl group, and one end is numbered to reduce the number of C atoms in the carbonyl group. Naming sequence: branch number, branch name, C carbonyl atomic number, main chain name (alkanone). example:

Alkane Derivative Compounds

Ketones are aromatic liquids with 3-13 carbon atoms. Ketones with more than 13 carbon atoms are solids. Lower ketones are water soluble. High ketones are insoluble in water. 2. Chemical properties Ketones are oxidized with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sulfuric acid to produce carbonic acid, water and carbon dioxide.

: : : Lithium aluminum hydride catalyst reduces ketones to secondary alcohols. Reaction with phosphorus pentachloride Acetone reacts with phosphorus pentachloride to form alkyl dighalides. React with Grignard reagent. Hydrolysis of ketones and Grignard reagents gives tertiary alcohols. aldol condensation. Under alkaline conditions, ketones can be condensed with zinc(II) chloride catalyst. Substitution reactions with halogens. Substitution occurs in Hα. Ketones can react with cyanic acid to form cyanohydrin. React with phenylhydrazine to produce phenylhydrazone and water.

Cycloketones are used as fragrance ingredients. Acetone is used to remove nail polish. isobutyl methyl ketone

The function of the field coil coil on the pole and yoke found in the starter motor is, alkyl alkanoate, the function of protein is in the number, the function of the expansion joint found in the bridge is, alkyl alkanoate ester, the function of sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate in detergent

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