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The 9 Oldest Kingdoms in Indonesia are Hindu-Buddhist in style

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Immaku.com – In the past, Indonesia had many kingdoms that played important roles in the development of the country’s history. Most of Indonesia’s oldest kingdoms were influenced by Hindu and Buddhist teachings. Each has its own history and has a different heritage.

Talking about history in Indonesia is indeed very long. Indonesia has experienced various eras until finally society arrived at the present. Including the era of historical kingdoms in the past.

In fact, all the names of the past kingdoms in Indonesia can easily be found in history books. Here are 9 of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia which are very important to recognize:

1. Kutai Kingdom

First, the oldest kingdom in Indonesia is the Kutai Kingdom which is referred to as the oldest kingdom in the country. According to history, this kingdom was established in the 5th century AD. The location of his kingdom was on the banks of the Mahakam River, namely in the province of East Kalimantan.

In this Kingdom, people are divided into two factions. This group consists of Brahmins and Kshatriyas. Meanwhile, in terms of religion, people in this kingdom are more likely to be influenced by the teachings of Hinduism.

There is ample evidence showing that the people of Kutai are Hindus. One of them is the action of King Mulawarman with the Brahmins to build a special place of worship for Hindus.

This kingdom has relics in the form of 7 inscribed stones or Yupa. Yupa is written in Sanskrit and each sentence uses Pallawa letters.

2. Tarumanagara

Furthermore, the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia are Tarumanegara, which is located in the Bogor area, West Java. The majority of this kingdom operates under the influence of Indian Hindu religious culture. Even though it is located in Bogor, this kingdom has an area of ​​authority covering Jakarta, Bogor and Cirebon.

Tarumanegara is known to have started developing in 400-600 AD. This kingdom gave legacy in the form of inscriptions scattered in many districts in the Bogor region.

3. Ho-Ling Kingdom

Continue to the next oldest kingdom in Indonesia, namely the Ho-Ling or Kalingga kingdom. This celebration is located in Central Java. The existence of the Ho-Ling kingdom has been demonstrated by various accurate evidences.

One of the proofs that shows that Ho-Ling did exist as a kingdom is the presence of envoys from China. In 647 and 666 AD, there were Chinese envoys who came to the royal location.

The arrival of the Chinese envoy was supported by the testimony of a Buddhist priest named I Tsing. The priest mentioned that Hwining, an emissary from China, had come to Ho-Ling.

One of the interesting things about this kingdom is the king who leads his people. The king is Ratu Sima who is a woman. Ratu Sima is known as a very wise leader who always treats the people fairly.

4. The Malay Government

Next is the Malay Government which is one of the oldest royal names in Indonesia. This Malay government was found in the Jambi area, namely along the Batanghari River.

But another history says that this kingdom is located in Peninsular Malaysia. Stories about this history were written in the books of Pararaton and Negarakertagama in the 13th century.

Through the book it is told that Raja Singasari came to Malaya. The purpose of the trip was to dispel the Mongol Empire led by King Kublai Khan. The Mongol Empire at that time wanted to rule over Southeast Asia.

King Singasari and the government of the Malay Kingdom worked together so that the intention of the Mongol Empire was realized. In the end the Mongol Empire failed to dominate Southeast Asia. King Singhasari also gave a gift of Archa Buddha to the Malay Kingdom.

5. Srivijaya

The Sriwijaya Kingdom is also included in the line of the oldest royal names in Indonesia. Sriwijaya was founded in the 7th and 15th centuries. At that time Sriwijaya was known as a kingdom that controlled trading activities in the South China Sea and the Malacca Straits.

Sriwijaya developed rapidly after being led by King Balaputradewa. The government also participated in expanding the Sriwijaya area to become a trade route. Not only that, the royal government also established diplomatic relations with India and China.

In addition to rapidly developing trade, Sriwijaya also developed very well in the field of education. In fact, this kingdom is known as a center of education, especially Buddhist education in Southeast Asia.

6. Ancient Mataram

The Ancient Mataram Kingdom began to exist in the 8th to 11th centuries AD. As one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia, Ancient Mataram also has a lot of history. This kingdom is known to have existed in Central Java but later moved to East Java.

Ancient Mataram was ruled by 2 dynasties, namely the dynasty of the House of Sanjaya and then the dynasty of the dynasty of the Syailendra. The Sanjaya dynasty itself carries a Hindu religious style. Meanwhile, the Syailendra dynasty has a Buddhist style.

In these 2 dynasties, the Ancient Mataram managed to control several areas in Central Java. During the dynasty of the Sanjaya dynasty, ancient Mataram ruled northern Central Java. Meanwhile, during the dynasty of the Syailendra dynasty, an ancient kingdom ruled the southern part of Central Java.

7. Kediri Government

Then there is the Kediri Kingdom which is found in the Kediri area. This oldest kingdom in Indonesia has many historical inscriptions. Starting from Sirah Keting, Nets, Hantang, Kamulan, and Padlegan.

According to history, the Kingdom of Kediri was not only led by one king, but several kings who had ascended the throne. There are Jayawara, Jayabaya, Sarweswara, Aryaswara, Ganara, Kameswara, and Kertajaya.

Of all the names of the kings who once ruled the Kingdom of Kediri, Jayabaya’s name is the most popular. King Jayabaya is popular because he succeeded in uniting the Kingdom of Kediri and the Kingdom of Jenggala.

8. Dynasty of Isyana

Enter the next kingdom, namely the Isyana dynasty. This oldest kingdom in Indonesia was established around 929 AD. At that time this kingdom was led by Mpu Sindok and was located in East Java.

This kingdom left a lot of history. There is a lot of evidence to show that this kingdom did exist in the past. One of them is a number of inscriptions containing royal heirs.

Of the several types of inscriptions left by the Isyana dynasty, pucang is the most popular inscription. This pucangan inscription is used as the strongest evidence of the existence of the Isyana Dynasty.

9. Majapahit

The Majapahit Kingdom is one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This kingdom was very famous and was founded in 1292 AD. The power of this kingdom was so great that it could last for 193 years.

One of the historic events of this kingdom was in 1331 AD where Gajah Mada succeeded in quelling the rebellion of Sadeng. Thanks to this achievement Gajah Mada was then chosen as Patih Mangkubumi Majapahit.

When Gajah Mada was inaugurated, he promised to unite the archipelago. This promise became known as the Palapa Oath. Majapahit then reached its heyday during the leadership of Gajah Mada and Hayam Wuruk.

All these oldest kingdoms in Indonesia have left so much history. Many struggles have been carried out in the days of the kingdom. All of these struggle stories can be read in textbooks education history or history of interest in and other reliable sources.

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Originally posted 2022-12-03 17:23:33.

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